Multimessenger signals of long-term core-collapse supernova simulations: Synergetic observation strategies

Ko Nakamura, Shunsaku Horiuchi, Masaomi Tanaka, Kazuhiro Hayama, Tomoya Takiwaki, Kei Kotake

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

89 Citations (Scopus)


The next Galactic supernova is expected to bring great opportunities for the direct detection of gravitational waves (GW), full flavour neutrinos, and multiwavelength photons. To maximize the science return from such a rare event, it is essential to have established classes of possible situations and preparations for appropriate observations. To this end, we use a long-term numerical simulation of the core-collapse supernova (CCSN) of a 17 M⊙ red supergiant progenitor to self-consistently model the multimessenger signals expected in GW, neutrino, and electromagnetic messengers. This supernova model takes into account the formation and evolution of a protoneutron star, neutrino-matter interaction, and neutrino transport, all within a two-dimensional shock hydrodynamics simulation. With this, we separately discuss three situations: (i) a CCSN at the Galactic Center, (ii) an extremely nearby CCSN within hundreds of parsecs, and (iii) a CCSN in nearby galaxies within several Mpc. These distance regimes necessitate different strategies for synergistic observations. In a Galactic CCSN, neutrinos provide strategic timing and pointing information. We explore how these in turn deliver an improvement in the sensitivity of GW analyses and help to guarantee observations of early electromagnetic signals. To facilitate the detection of multimessenger signals of CCSNe in extremely nearby and extragalactic distances, we compile a list of nearby red supergiant candidates and a list of nearby galaxies with their expected CCSN rates. By exploring the sequential multimessenger signals of a nearby CCSN, we discuss preparations for maximizing successful studies of such an unprecedented stirring event.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3296-3313
Number of pages18
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Sept 21


  • Galaxy: general
  • Gravitational waves
  • Neutrinos
  • Supernovae: general


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