To elucidate the expression mechanisms of brain functions, we have developed an ultrathin fluorescence endoscope imaging system (U-FEIS) that can image cells in the brain at any depth while minimizing the invasion. The endoscope part of U-FEIS consists of a GRIN lens and a 10,000-pixel image fiber with a diameter of 450 μm. The specialized microscope of U-FEIS is within 30 cm square and includes lenses and optical filters optimized for the endoscope. Using U-FEIS, we successfully visualized neurons expressing GFP with single-cell resolution and recorded the multineuronal activities in vitro and in vivo. U-FEIS can also perform imaging and optical stimulation simultaneously. Therefore, U-FEIS should be a powerful optical tool in neuroscience research.