To determine the origin and genetic consequences of anagenesis in Rubus takesimensis on Ulleung Island, Korea, we compared the genetic diversity and population structure of R. takesimensis with those of its continental progenitor R. crataegifolius. We broadly sampled a total of 315 accessions in 35 populations and sequenced five noncoding regions of chloroplast DNA. Rubus takesimensis emerged as nonmonophyletic and several geographically diverse continental populations were likely responsible for the origin of R. takesimensis; the majority of R. takesimensis accessions were sisters to the clade containing accessions of R. crataegifolius, primarily from the Korean peninsula, while rare accessions from three populations shared common ancestors with the ones from the southern part of the Korean peninsula, Jeju Island, and Japan. A few accessions from the Chusan population originated independently from the Korean peninsula. Of 129 haplotypes, 81 and 48 were found exclusively in R. crataegifolius and R. takesimensis, respectively. We found unusually high genetic diversity in two regions on Ulleung Island and no geographic population structure. For R. crataegifolius, two major haplotype groups were found; one for the northern mainland Korean peninsula, and the other for the southern Korean peninsula and the Japanese archipelago. Compared with populations of R. crataegifolius sampled from Japan, much higher haplotype diversity was found in populations from the Korean peninsula. The patterns of genetic consequences in R. takesimensis need to be verified for other endemic species based on chloroplast DNA and independent nuclear markers to synthesize emerging patterns of anagenetic speciation on Ulleung Island.