Solidification of municipal incineration bottom ash (MIBA) has been carried out using a hydrothermal processing method, in which the MIBA was first compacted in a mold at 5-20 MPa, and then hydrothermally cured in an autoclave under saturated steam pressure at 150-250 °C for 10-72 h. Experimental results showed that the tensile strength of the solidified body was greatly influenced by the addition of NaOH solution and fresh cement in the MIBA. The hydrothermal curing temperature and time exerted a significant influence on the development of tensile strength of solidified body. The strength development is speculated to be due primarily to the formation of 1.1 nm tobermorite. Laboratory leaching tests were conducted to determine the amount of heavy metals dissolved from the solidified bodies and the results showed that under the hydrothermal conditions of this study the leaching of heavy metals was very low. As such, the hydrothermal processing method may have a high potential for recycling MIBA.