The dynamics and actions of Muse cells at a time of physical crisis are unique and highly remarkable compared with other stem cell types. When the living body is in a steady state, low levels of Muse cells are mobilized to the peripheral blood, possibly from the bone marrow, and supplied to the connective tissue of nearly every organ. Under conditions of serious tissue damage, such as acute myocardial infarction and stroke, Muse cells are highly mobilized to the peripheral blood, drastically increasing their numbers in the peripheral blood within 24 h after the onset of tissue injury. The alerting signal, sphingosine-1-phosphate, attracts Muse cells to the damaged site mainly via the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2, enabling them to preferentially home to site of injury. After homing, Muse cells spontaneously differentiate into tissue-compatible cells and replenish new functional cells for tissue repair. Because Muse cells have pleiotropic effects, including paracrine, anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic, and anti-apoptotic effects, these cells synergistically deliver long-lasting functional and structural recovery. This chapter describes how Muse cells exert their reparative effects in vivo.