Ultraviolet (UV) nanoimprinting has the potential to fabricate sub-15 nm resin patterns, but the interfacial fluidity of organic monomers near monomer liquid/mold solid interfaces related to filling nanoscale mold recesses with UV-curable resins still remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that surface forces and resonance shear measurements were helpful to select a surface modifier appropriate for silica mold surfaces for UV nanoimprinting with the low-viscosity monomer 1,10-decanediol diacrylate. Surface forces between silica surfaces mediated with the diacrylate monomer and fluidities of the monomer were investigated with nanometer resolution. Chemical vapor surface modification of silica surfaces with chlorodimethyl(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)silane (FAS3-Cl) and tridecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydrooctyltrimethoxysilane (FAS13) gave fluorinated silica surfaces with root-mean-square roughness of less than 0.24 nm suitable for the measurements. When the distance D between two silica surfaces was decreased stepwise in the range of 0-30 nm, monomer viscosity between cleaned silica surfaces increased markedly at D < 6 nm. Surface modification with FAS3-Cl suppressed this increase of interfacial monomer viscosity. In contrast, FAS13-modified silica surfaces caused a jump-in phenomenon at approximately D = 7-9 nm, suddenly decreasing to D = 1 nm as the monomer fluid layer was squeezed out. We concluded that FAS3-Cl was appropriate as a fluorinated surface modifier for silica molds used in UV nanoimprinting with an oleophilic low-viscosity monomer, because the chemisorbed monolayer maintained low monomer viscosity near the surface/monomer interface, in addition to its low surface free energy and short CF3CH2CH2- group.
- fluorinated chemisorbed monolayer
- near-interface viscosity
- resonance shear measurement
- silica surface
- surface forces apparatus