We conducted a prospective cohort study in Japan to investigate associations between negative psychological aspects and cancer survival. Between July 1999 and July 2004, a total of 1178 lung cancer patients were enrolled. The questionnaire asked about socioeconomic variables, smoking status, clinical symptoms, and psychological aspects after diagnosis. Negative psychological aspects were assessed for the subscales of helplessness/hopelessness and depression. Clinical stage, performance status (PS), and histologic type were obtained from medical charts. The subjects were followed up until December 2004, and 686 had died. A Cox regression model was used to estimate the hazards ratio (HR) of all-cause mortality. After adjustment for socioeconomic variables and smoking status in addition to sex, age, and histologic type, both helplessness/hopelessness and depression subscales showed significant linear positive associations with the risk of mortality (p for trend <0.001 for both). However, after adjustment for clinical state variables in addition to sex, age, and histologic type, these significant linear positive associations were no longer observed (p for trend = 0.41 and 0.26, respectively). Our data supported the hypothesis that the association between helplessness/hopelessness and depression and the risk of mortality among lung cancer patients was largely confounded by clinical state variables including clinical stage, PS, and clinical symptoms.
- Cancer survival
- Prospective cohort study