Neural substrates for writing impairments in Japanese patients with mild Alzheimer's disease: A SPECT study

Atsuko Hayashi, Hiroshi Nomura, Ruriko Mochizuki, Ayumu Ohnuma, Teiko Kimpara, Kazumasa Ootomo, Yoshiyuki Hosokai, Toshiyuki Ishioka, Kyoko Suzuki, Etsuro Mori

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


Language is fairly well preserved in most patients with mild Alzheimer's disease, but writing ability seems to be impaired even in the early stages of the disease. To investigate the neural bases of writing impairments in Alzheimer's disease (AD), we examined the correlation between writing ability and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 52 Japanese patients with mild AD compared to 22 controls, using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). We found that, compared with control subjects, Kana writing to dictation and copying Kanji words were preserved in AD patients, but writing to dictating Kanji words was impaired. We classified the errors in the Kanji dictation task into four types to investigate the correlation between rCBF and the error type, as follows: non-response errors, phonologically plausible errors, non-phonologically plausible errors, and peripheral errors. Non-response errors, which indicated difficulty with retrieving Kanji graphic images, were the most frequent. When controlled for confounding factors, the number of non-response errors negatively correlated with rCBF in the left inferior parietal lobule, the posterior middle and inferior temporal gyri, and the posterior middle frontal gyrus. Thus, the impaired recall of Kanji in early Alzheimer's disease is related to dysfunctional cortical activity, which appears to be predominant in the left frontal, parietal, and temporal regions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1962-1968
Number of pages7
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2011 Jun


  • Dementia
  • Kana
  • Kanji
  • Regional cerebral blood flow
  • Writing disorder


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