Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders

Tetsuya Akaishi, Ichiro Nakashima, Douglas Kazutoshi Sato, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Kazuo Fujihara

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

45 Citations (Scopus)


Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is clinically characterized by severe optic neuritis and transverse myelitis, but recent studies with anti-aquaporin-4-antibody specific to NMO have revealed that the clinical spectrum is wider than previously thought. International consensus diagnostic criteria propose NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSD) as the term to define the entire spectrum including typical NMO, optic neuritis, acute myelitis, brain syndrome, and their combinations. NMOSD is now divided into anti-aquaporin-4-antibody-seropositive NMOSD and -seronegative NMOSD (or unknown serostatus). MR imaging and optical coherence tomography are indispensable in the diagnosis and evaluation of NMOSD. This article reviews the clinical and MR imaging findings of anti-aquaporin-4-antibody-seropositive and anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-antibody-seropositive NMOSD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)251-265
Number of pages15
JournalNeuroimaging Clinics of North America
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2017 May 1


  • Anti-aquaporin-4 antibody
  • Anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody
  • MR imaging
  • Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders
  • Optical coherence tomography


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