New Combination of Magnet and Coil of Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer for Generating and Detecting Rayleigh Wave

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Nondestructive testing for identifying defects on the surface of metal materials is important for industries and infrastructures. The Rayleigh wave is widely used for detecting these surface defects. For replacing piezoelectric transducers with electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) for the surface inspection of metal materials, this article proposes a new magnet and coil combination consisting of a periodic-permanent-magnet (PPM) and a returned dislocation meander line coil. The returned dislocation meander line coil was developed using a traditional meander line coil, whose wires return from one side to another and shift for a certain distance. A 2-D finite-element simulation was conducted to analyze the performance of the proposed Rayleigh wave EMAT. The simulation results revealed that, compared with a large conventional magnet, the PPM increased the maximum magnetic flux density, and made the magnetic flux density distribution more concentrated on the specimen's surface, particularly below the coil. In the middle part of the coil, the PPM greatly increased the intensity of the horizontal magnetic field. Additionally, the returned dislocation meander line coil made full use of the strong magnetic field below the center of each small magnet and at the adjacent magnets. The designed Rayleigh wave EMAT was fabricated, and the experimental results revealed that the new design of the Rayleigh wave EMAT increased the received signal by 57.9% compared with the conventional Rayleigh wave EMAT.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8918054
Pages (from-to)832-839
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Apr


  • Electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT)
  • nondestructive testing (NDT)
  • periodic permanent magnet (PPM)
  • rayleigh wave
  • returned dislocation meander line coil
  • surface defects


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