Nitrative stress through formation of 8-nitroguanosine: Insights into microbial pathogenesis

Teruo Akuta, Mohammad Hasan Zaki, Jun Yoshitake, Tatsuya Okamoto, Takaaki Akaike

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Citations (Scopus)


Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, respectively, mediate oxidative and nitrative stresses by means of oxidation and nitration of various biomolecules including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. We have observed nitric oxide (NO)-dependent formation of 8-nitroguanosine and 3-nitrotyrosine during microbial infection, and we determined that both 8-nitroguanosine and 3-nitrotyrosine are useful biomarkers of nitrative stress. Of importance, however, is the great difference in biological characteristics of these two nitrated compounds. 8-Nitroguanosine has unique biochemical and pharmacological properties such as redox activity and mutagenic potential, which 3-nitrotyrosine does not. In this review, we discuss the mechanism of nitrative stress occurring during microbial infections, with special emphasis on biological functions of 8-nitroguanosine formed via NO during the host response to pathogens. These findings provide insights into NO-mediated pathogenesis not only of viral infections but also of many other diseases.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)101-108
Number of pages8
JournalNitric Oxide - Biology and Chemistry
Issue number2 SPEC. ISS.
Publication statusPublished - 2006 Mar


  • 3-Nitrotyrosine
  • 8-Nitroguanosine
  • Nitrative stress
  • Nitric oxide
  • Viral mutation
  • Viral pathogenesis


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