Nitride Precipitation in Duplex Stainless Steel Weld Metal

H. Kokawa, E. Tsory, T. H. North

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


Duplex stainless steel base material was welded using gas tungsten arc welding with an Ar-10%H2 shielding gas and laboratory-made filler wires were employed to deposit duplex and fully ferritic weld metals having different nitrogen contents. Weld metal slow extension rate tensile (WM-SERT) testing was used to examine the hydrogen-induced cracking susceptibility and fractography of the weld metals. An increase in nitrogen content in fully ferritic stainless steel weld metal increased the density of precipitates and the hydrogen-induced cracking susceptibility. The facets on the quasi-cleavage fracture surfaces of broken WM-SERT test specimens were parallel to the {100} plane in ferrite. Scanning and transmission electron microscope observations revealed the crystallographic features and morphology of the precipitates. The precipitates were rod-like Cr2N nitrides. Many of them had 〉100〈 directions and were parallel to the cleavage {100} plane in ferrite. An orientation relationship shown between Cr2N precipitates and ferrite suggested that the axes of the Cr2N precipitates were parallel to 〉001〈 direction in ferrite and that they were more coherent along their long faces than at their tips. As a result, the tip of these Cr2N precipitates could act as sinks for hydrogen and may be preferential sites for initiation of hydrogen cracking; this could promote crack propagation on {001} cleavage planes in ferrite on which Cr2N precipitates are located. Higher densities of Cr2N precipitates were nucleated at solidification boundaries and at oxide inclusions in ferrite.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1277-1283
Number of pages7
JournalIsij International
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 1995
Externally publishedYes


  • crystallographic feature
  • duplex stainless steel
  • hydrogen induced cracking
  • morphology
  • nitride precipitation
  • weld metal

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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