Nonequilibrium fluctuations in biological strands, machines, and cells

Shoichi Toyabe, Masaki Sano

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Can physics provide a quantitative methodology and unified view to elucidate rich and diverse biological phenomena? Nonequilibrium fluctuations are key quantities. These fluctuations have universal symmetries, convey essential information about systems' behaviors, and are experimentally accessible in most systems. We review experimental developments to extract information from the nonequilibrium fluctuations of biological systems. In particular, we focus on the three major hierarchies in small scales: strands, molecular machines, and cells.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102001
JournalJournal of the Physical Society of Japan
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Oct 15


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