Can physics provide a quantitative methodology and unified view to elucidate rich and diverse biological phenomena? Nonequilibrium fluctuations are key quantities. These fluctuations have universal symmetries, convey essential information about systems' behaviors, and are experimentally accessible in most systems. We review experimental developments to extract information from the nonequilibrium fluctuations of biological systems. In particular, we focus on the three major hierarchies in small scales: strands, molecular machines, and cells.