Aldosterone (Aldo) accelerates hypertension, proteinuria, and glomerulosclerosis in animal models of malignant hypertension or chronic renal failure. Aldo may exert these deleterious renal effects by elevating renal vascular resistance and glomerular capillary pressure. To test this possibility, directly examined were the action of Aldo on the afferent (Af) and efferent (Ef) arterioles (Arts). Examined were the effect of Aldo added to both the bath and lumen on the intraluminal diameter (measured at the most responsive point) of rabbits. Aldo caused dose-dependent constriction in both arterioles with a higher sensitivity in Ef-Arts. Vasoconstrictor action of Aldo was not affected by a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone and was reproduced by membrane-impermeable albumin-conjugated Aldo, suggesting that the vasoconstrictor actions are nongenomic. Pretreatment with neomycin (a specific inhibitor of phospholipase C) abolished the vasoconstrictor action of Aldo in both arterioles. In addition, the vasoconstrictor action of Aldo on Af-Arts was inhibited by both nifedipine and efonidipine, whereas that on Ef-Arts was inhibited by efonidipine but not nifedipine. The results demonstrate that Aldo causes nongenomic vasoconstriction by activating phospholipase C with a subsequent calcium mobilization thorough L- or T-type voltage-dependent calcium channels in Af- or Ef-Arts, respectively. These vasoconstrictor actions on the glomerular microcirculation may play an important role in the pathophysiology and progression of renal diseases by elevating renal vascular resistance and glomerular capillary pressure.
|Number of pages
|Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN
|Published - 2003 Sept 1