We study numerically and experimentally the nonlinear dynamic bending and sensing behavior of clamped-clamped functionally graded piezoelectric transducers under alternating current (AC) voltage. The contribution of domain wall motion to the elastic compliance, piezoelectric coefficient and dielectric permittivity in soft lead zirconate titanate (PZT) layers is evaluated, and a nonlinear finite element analysis is performed to discuss the effects of the amplitude and frequency of input voltage, number of layers and property gradation on the sound pressure, output voltage, and internal stresses and electric field for the transducers. In order to confirm the numerical results, bending tests on functionally graded piezoelectric transducers are conducted, and the sound pressure and output voltage are measured.
- Detection and response
- Functionally graded electronic materials
- Smart materials and structures