A novel self-sensing method using piezoelectric actuators for semi-active vibration suppression is proposed and investigated. By using extended system equations, this self-sensing method can be implemented with a Kalman filter instead of the conventional bridge circuit technique. The method separates electrical status into two cases concerning electrical current, and characterizes each of these to establish the self-sensing system. This method is applicable to multiple-degree-of-freedom structures with multiple piezoelectric actuators. A numerical vibration suppression simulation demonstrated that the self-sensing method works well on a truss structure and has significant robustness against parameter variations. Experimental results also demonstrated that the self-sensing method suppresses not only single-mode vibration but also multiple-mode vibration.