Novel ultra-lightweight and high-resolution MEMS X-ray optics

Ikuyuki Mitsuishi, Yuichiro Ezoe, Utako Takagi, Makoto Mita, Raul Riveros, Hitomi Yamaguchi, Fumiki Kato, Susumu Sugiyama, Kouzou Fujiwara, Kohei Morishita, Kazuo Nakajima, Shinya Fujihira, Yoshiaki Kanamori, Noriko Y. Yamasaki, Kazuhisa Mitsuda, Ryutaro Maeda

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


We have been developing ultra light-weight X-ray optics using MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) technologies.We utilized crystal planes after anisotropic wet etching of silicon (110) wafers as X-ray mirrors and succeeded in X-ray reflection and imaging. Since we can etch tiny pores in thin wafers, this type of optics can be the lightest X-ray telescope. However, because the crystal planes are alinged in certain directions, we must approximate ideal optical surfaces with flat planes, which limits angular resolution of the optics on the order of arcmin. In order to overcome this issue, we propose novel X-ray optics based on a combination of five recently developed MEMS technologies, namely silicon dry etching, X-ray LIGA, silicon hydrogen anneal, magnetic fluid assisted polishing and hot plastic deformation of silicon. In this paper, we describe this new method and report on our development of X-ray mirrors fabricated by these technologies and X-ray reflection experiments of two types of MEMS X-ray mirrors made of silicon and nickel. For the first time, X-ray reflections on these mirrors were detected in the angular response measurements. Compared to model calculations, surface roughness of the silicon and nickel mirrors were estimated to be 5 nm and 3 nm, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEUV and X-Ray Optics
Subtitle of host publicationSynergy between Laboratory and Space
Publication statusPublished - 2009
EventEUV and X-Ray Optics: Synergy between Laboratory and Space - Prague, Czech Republic
Duration: 2009 Apr 202009 Apr 22

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
ISSN (Print)0277-786X


ConferenceEUV and X-Ray Optics: Synergy between Laboratory and Space
Country/TerritoryCzech Republic


  • D-RIE
  • Hot plastic deformation
  • Hydrogen annealing
  • MEMS
  • Magnetic field assisted polishing
  • X-ray LIGA


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