Nucleation and growth of apatite on amorphous phases in simulated body fluid

Tadashi Kokubo, Hyun Min Kim, Masakazu Kawashita, Hiroaki Takadama, Toshiki Miyazaki, Masaki Uchida, Takashi Nakamura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Citations (Scopus)


The essential requirement for an artificial material to bond to living bone is the formation of a bonelike apatite layer on its surface in the living body. The present paper shows that some functional groups such as Si-OH, Ti-OH, Zr-OH, Ta-OH and Nb-OH on a material are effective for the apatite nucleation in body environment. These functional groups induce the apatite nucleation not directly but through formation of a calcium compound such as calcium silicate or titanate. Once the apatite nuclei are formed, they can grow spontaneously by consuming the calcium and phosphate ions from the surrounding fluid. Their growth is controlled not by ion diffusion in the fluid, but by the mass transport across the solid-liquid interface. These fundamental findings provide us principles for developing various kinds of bioactive materials with different mechanical properties.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)247-254
Number of pages8
JournalGlass Science and Technology: Glastechnische Berichte
Issue number1 SUPPL. C
Publication statusPublished - 2000 Dec 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites


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