Numerical simulation of ammonothermal crystal growth of GaN-current state, challenges, and prospects

Saskia Schimmel, Daisuke Tomida, Tohru Ishiguro, Yoshio Honda, Shigefusa Chichibu, Hiroshi Amano

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Numerical simulations are a valuable tool for the design and optimization of crystal growth processes because experimental investigations are expensive and access to internal parameters is limited. These technical limitations are particularly large for ammonothermal growth of bulk GaN, an important semiconductor material. This review presents an overview of the literature on simulations targeting ammonothermal growth of GaN. Approaches for validation are also reviewed, and an overview of available methods and data is given. Fluid flow is likely in the transitional range between laminar and turbulent; however, the time-averaged flow patterns likely tend to be stable. Thermal boundary conditions both in experimental and numerical research deserve more detailed evaluation, especially when designing numerical or physical models of the ammonothermal growth system. A key source of uncertainty for calculations is fluid properties under the specific conditions. This originates from their importance not only in numerical simulations but also in designing similar physical model systems and in guiding the selection of the flow model. Due to the various sources of uncertainty, a closer integration of numerical modeling, physical modeling, and the use of measurements under ammonothermal process conditions appear to be necessary for developing numerical models of defined accuracy.

Original languageEnglish
Article number356
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Apr


  • Ammonothermal
  • Buoyancy
  • Computational fluid dynamics
  • Conjugated heat transfer
  • Crystal growth
  • Gallium nitride
  • Hydrothermal
  • Natural convection
  • Numerical simulation
  • Solvothermal


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