Scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy (SNDM) is a purely electrical method for observing the ferroelectric domain distributions. Today, its resolution is attained at the sub-nanometer. In this paper, we compare the resolution of SNDM to that of piezoresponse imaging by observing the ferroelectric domains in PZT thin film. Moreover, we observed the defects of polarization reversal with nanometer order using SNDM.
- Concentration of square of electric field
- Forming nano-order dots
- Nonlinear dielectric response
- Piezoelectric response
- Reversible and nonreversible domains
- Scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy