The adsorbed water effect on the signal obtained by temperature-controlled scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy (SNDM) is reported. From the experimental and computational results, we verified that the adsorbed water strongly affects the signal strength, depth sensitivity and resolution of SNDM. In addition, we also confirmed that the surface paraelectric layer on LiTaO 3 single crystal grows with heat treatment.
- Adsorbed water
- Ferroelectric material
- Scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy
- Surface layer