A new method is proposed to derive the optical properties and size distribution of aerosol in an air column from simultaneous measurements of the backscattering coefficient, the optical thickness, and the solar aureole intensity with lidar, a sunphotometer, and an aureolemeter. Inasmuch as the backscattering properties and the optical thickness depend on both the complex refractive index and the size distribution, whereas the forward-scattering properties depend mainly on the size distribution, real and imaginary indices of refraction and size distributions of aerosol are retrieved from these measurements. The real and the imaginary parts of the complex refractive index of an aerosol at a wavelength of 500 nm during the period from November 1991 to March 1992 obtained in Tsukuba, Japan, were estimated to be 1.46–1.48 and 0.005–0.014, respectively. It is inferred from the size distribution and an optical thickness fraction of stratospheric aerosols in the total columnar aerosols that these results reflect the influences of stratospheric aerosols that originated from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption.