Optimal forwarding games in mobile Ad Hoc networks with two-hop f-cast relay

Jiajia Liu, Xiaohong Jiang, Hiroki Nishiyama, Ryu Miura, Nei Kato, Naoto Kadowaki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


This paper examines the optimal forwarding problem in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) based on a generalized two-hop relay with limited packet redundancy f (f-cast) for packet routing. We formulate such problem as a forwarding game, where each node i individually decides a probability τ-i (i.e., a strategy) to deliver out its own traffic and helps to forward other traffic with probability 1-τ-i, τ-i[0,1], while its payoff is the achievable throughput capacity of its own traffic. We derive closed-form result for the per node throughput capacity (i.e., payoff function) when all nodes play the symmetric strategy profiles, identify all the possible Nash equilibria of the forwarding game, and prove that there exists a Nash equilibrium strategy profile that is strictly Pareto optimal. Finally, for any symmetric profile, we explore the possible maximum per node throughput capacity and determine the corresponding optimal setting of f to achieve it.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6354275
Pages (from-to)2169-2179
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2012


  • Mobile ad hoc networks
  • Nash equilibrium
  • packet redundancy
  • throughput capacity
  • two-hop relay


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