Inflammation has been strongly related to metabolic syndrome (MetS). Periodontal disease is the most common chronic infection in adults. We investigated a cross-sectional (n = 925) and 3-year longitudinal (n = 685) relationship between the daily frequency of toothbrushing and MetS. In the cross-sectional analysis, the prevalence of MetS was 15.7%. After adjustment for potential confounding factors (including all lifestyle factors), the odds ratios (95% confidence interval [CI]) of having MetS in those who brushed 2 times/day and ≤ 3 times/day were 0.71 (0.48-1.05) and 0.47 (0.24-0.92), respectively, as compared with ratios in those with a toothbrushing frequency of ≥ 1 time/day. Increasing toothbrushing frequency tended to relate inversely to hypertriglyceridemia and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. In the longitudinal analysis, 99 participants were newly diagnosed with MetS. The adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) of the MetS in participants who brushed 2 times/day and ≤ 3 times/day as compared with participants who brushed ≥ 1 time/day were 0.80 (0.49-1.31) and 0.43 (0.19-0.97), respectively. The frequency of toothbrushing was related inversely only to hypertriglyceridemia, consistent with the cross-sectional analysis. This study found that more frequent toothbrushing is related to a lower prevalence and incidence of MetS. These results suggest that more frequent toothbrushing may contribute to the prevention of MetS due to the inflammation/triglyceride pathway.
- cardiovascular risk factors
- high-sensitivity C-reactive protein
- periodontal disease