Over-adaptation and school adjustment: Junior high school students

Kenichiro Ishizu, Hideo Ambo

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3 Citations (Scopus)


The Over-Adaptation Tendency Scale is composed of internal (self-inhibitive personality traits) and external (other-directed behavioral adaptation strategies) characteristics. So far, research on these 2 characteristics has studied them independently, but it is possible to hypothesize that internal aspects would invite specific (external) behavior. The present study aimed (a) to investigate the relation between the internal and external aspects of the Over-Adaptation Scale in relation to childhood temperament and maternal attitudes toward childrearing, and (b) to construct a comprehensive model of over-adaptation and school adjustment. Junior high school students (N = 1,025) and their mothers completed a questionnaire. The results suggest that the internal aspects affected by childhood temperament and maternal attitudes toward childrearing were related positively to external aspects. Internal aspects were related negatively to school adjustment and positively to depressive symptoms, whereas the external aspects affected by internal aspects were related positively to school adjustment. However, the external aspects showed no relation to depressive symptoms. It is possible that over-adaptation supports social and cultural adjustment, but has no benefit for psychological adjustment or health.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)442-453
Number of pages12
JournalJapanese Journal of Educational Psychology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2009 Dec


  • Childhood temperament
  • Junior high school students
  • Mothers' attitudes toward childrearing
  • Over-adaptation
  • School adjustment


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