Research in pursuit of rotorcraft flight on Mars has been ongoing since the late 1990s at NASA Ames Research Center. Since then, many other organizations have also begun researching rotary-wing flight on Mars. In 2014, the project that led to the first helicopter to fly on Mars began at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Ingenuity was developed as a joint effort between JPL, NASA Ames, NASA Langley, and AeroVironment. The Ingenuity Mars Helicopter made history in April 2021 as the first vehicle demonstrating controlled, powered flight on another planet and, in doing so, it has opened a new era of planetary aviation. Future, more capable Mars rotorcraft will be able to fly even further and carry significant science payload. At NASA Ames, through NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate funding, the research necessary to help develop the next generation of Mars rotorcraft has begun with the Rotor Optimization for the Advancement of Mars eXploration (ROAMX) project. The ROAMX project involves computationally and experimentally investigating aerodynamically efficient, compressible, low-Reynolds number airfoils for rotor blades and, further, new high-performance rotor designs. ROAMX is also developing and validating a rotor design methodology to optimize blades given specific mission requirements. The primary experimental effort of the ROAMX project is focused on rotor hover performance, but subsequent airfoil and rotor design advances are anticipated to carry over into improvements in forward flight efficiency. ROAMX is a collaboration between NASA Ames, JPL, the University of Maryland, AeroVironment, and Tohoku University.