Cow's milk (CM) is one of the major causes of food allergies in children. We constructed a peptide array consisting of a linear 16-mer peptide library with an offset of 3-mer, which corresponds to the primary sequences of six major CM allergens. The immune reactivity to cow's milk proteins diminishes with age and clinical tolerance commonly occurs. Although the central role of IgE in allergy is well established, the role of other specific antibody classes in obtaining immunotolerance is not well known. The hypothesis that patients become tolerant when they develop immunological changes particularly with the IgG4 isotype has been proposed. In this study, the binding pattern of the CM protein-specific IgE and IgG4 epitopes was measured using the peptide array with sera of 12 patients with persistent CM allergy (CMA), sera of 5 children who outgrew CMA, and sera of 7 CM-sensitized children without allergy symptoms. In CMA patients the IgG4/IgE fluorescence intensity ratios varied greatly from peptide to peptide, and the scatter plots of IgE versus IgG4 signals using significant IgE-binding peptides showed different distribution patterns. When setting the boundary line based on the IgG4/IgE ratio (IgG4/IgE = 2), patients with persistent CMA and CM-sensitized children can be distinguished by the plot pattern of peptides. Furthermore, the number of peptide plots in these regions was less in children who outgrew CMA. The approach employed in this study will allow for the distinction between CMA and CM-sensitization, and will enable the estimation of CMA outgrow by monitoring the time elapsed data.
- Cow's milk allergy
- IgE-binding epitopes
- IgG4/IgE ratio
- Peptide array
- Piezoelectric ceramic micropump