Introduction: Accelerating the speed of orthodontic tooth movement should contribute to the shortening of the treatment period. This would be beneficial because long treatment times are a negative aspect of orthodontic treatment. In this study, we evaluated the effects of mechanical stimulation by resonance vibration on tooth movement, and we showed the cellular and molecular mechanisms of periodontal ligament responses. Methods: The maxillary first molars of 6-week-old male Wistar rats were moved to the buccal side by using an expansive spring for 21 days (n = 6, control group), and the amount of tooth movement was measured. Additional vibrational stimulation (60 Hz, 1.0 m/s2) was applied to the first molars by using a loading vibration system for 8 minutes on days 0, 7, and 14 during orthodontic tooth movement (n = 6, experimental group). The animals were killed under anesthesia, and each maxilla was dissected. The specimens were fixed, decalcified, and embedded in paraffin. Sections were used for immunohistochemical analysis of receptor activator of NF kappa B ligand (RANKL) expression. The number of osteoclasts in the alveolar bone was counted by using TRAP staining, and the amount of root resorption was measured in sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Results: The average resonance frequency of the maxillary first molar was 61.02 ± 8.38 Hz. Tooth movement in the experimental group was significantly greater than in the control group (P <.05). Enhanced RANKL expression was observed at fibroblasts and osteoclasts in the periodontal ligament of the experimental group on day 3. The number of osteoclasts in the experimental group was significantly increased over the control group on day 8 (P <.05). Histologically, there were no pathological findings in either group or significant differences in the amount of root resorption between the 2 groups. Conclusions: The application of resonance vibration might accelerate orthodontic tooth movement via enhanced RANKL expression in the periodontal ligament without additional damage to periodontal tissues such as root resorption.
|Number of pages||12|
|Journal||American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics|
|Publication status||Published - 2008 Apr|