Phase relation of CaSO4 at high pressure and temperature up to 90 GPa and 2300 K

Taku Fujii, Hiroaki Ohfuji, Toru Inoue

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12 Citations (Scopus)


Calcium sulfate (CaSO4), one of the major sulfate minerals in the Earth’s crust, is expected to play a major role in sulfur recycling into the deep mantle. Here, we investigated the crystal structure and phase relation of CaSO4 up to ~90 GPa and 2300 K through a series of high-pressure experiments combined with in situ X-ray diffraction. CaSO4 forms three thermodynamically stable polymorphs: anhydrite (stable below 3 GPa), monazite-type phase (stable between 3 and ~13 GPa) and barite-type phase (stable up to at least 93 GPa). Anhydrite to monazite-type phase transition is induced by pressure even at room temperature, while monazite- to barite-type transition requires heating at least to 1500 K at ~20 GPa. The barite-type phase cannot always be quenched from high temperature and is distorted to metastable AgMnO4-type structure or another modified barite structure depending on pressure. We obtained the pressure–volume data and density of anhydrite, monazite- and barite-type phases and found that their densities are lower than those calculated from the PREM model in the studied P–T conditions. This suggests that CaSO4 is gravitationally unstable in the mantle and fluid/melt phase into which sulfur dissolves and/or sulfate–sulfide speciation may play a major role in the sulfur recycling into the deep Earth.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)353-361
Number of pages9
JournalPhysics and Chemistry of Minerals
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2016 May 1


  • Calcium sulfate
  • High pressure
  • Phase transition
  • Raman spectroscopy
  • X-ray diffraction


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