Phenomenological analysis on whipping behavior of rice flour batter

Chiaki Ichikawa, Daitaro Ishikawa, Jia Min Yang, Tomoyuki Fujii

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Abstract: In this study, the bubbles in rice flour batter were investigated under a constant temperature, because the bubble size distribution is important for the control of food texture. We obtained experimental data using a hand mixer and compared the properties of doughs prepared using six rice flours; each flour was prepared through a different milling process. We also added the size effect of the rice flour particles as the Bond number. Furthermore, we performed a dynamic wettability test to estimate the wettability of the rice flour surface. The results of this test were described well by the Washburn equation, and dccosθ/dp was calculated as a wettability parameter (where, dc = effective diameter of a capillary in a powder bed, cosθ = the contact angle, dp = mean particle diameter of rice flour). If bubble sizes depend mainly on the inertial force, viscous force, surface tension, and gravity, then the normalized mean bubble diameter should be a function of the Reynolds number, Weber number, and Froude number. The mean bubble diameter (dbm) generated by whipping was expected to be affected by the thickness (d) of the rod of the mixer, its movement speed, and physical properties of the material. Therefore, dimensionless mean diameter (dbm/d) was expressed based on a dimensionless equation. In the three-phase dispersion, different empirical equations were obtained depending on the amount of rice flour added, and the bubble diameter could be predicted using dimensionless parameters. In addition, the equations were generally applicable to the various materials selected for this study. Practical Application: The powder properties of rice flour were investigated, and dimensionless parameters were analyzed to construct an appropriate process control system for rice flour-based food products. Although the process method optimized for flour products is also used for rice flour products in practical situations, the comprehensive evaluation based on dimensionless parameters leads to optimization of the process for rice-flour based products. Moreover, this optimization might strongly support the creation of a new texture, and thus, the potential for market expansion of rice-flour based products is considerable.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4327-4334
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Food Science
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Dec


  • bubble size
  • dimensionless equation
  • dynamic wettability
  • three-phase dispersion
  • whipping


Dive into the research topics of 'Phenomenological analysis on whipping behavior of rice flour batter'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this