Modern integrated devices and electrical circuits have often been designed with carbon nanostructures, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene due to their high thermal and electrical transport properties. These transport properties are strongly correlated to their acoustic phonon and carrier dynamics. Thus, understanding the phonon and carrier dynamics of carbon nanostructures in extremely small regions will lead to their further practical applications. Here, we demonstrate ultrafast time-resolved electron diffraction and ultrafast transient spectroscopy to characterize the phonon and carrier dynamics at the boundary of quasi-one-dimensional CNTs before and after Joule annealing. The results from ultrafast time-resolved electron diffraction show that the CNTs after Joule annealing reach the phonon equilibrium state extremely fast with a timescale of 10 ps, which indicates that thermal transport in CNTs improves following Joule annealing. The methodology described in this study connects conventional macroscopic thermo- and electrodynamics to those at the nanometer scale. Realistic timescale kinetic simulations were performed to further elaborate on the phenomena that occur in CNTs during Joule annealing. The insights obtained in this study are expected to pave the way to parameterize the unexplored thermal and electrical properties of carbon materials at the nanometer scale.
- Carbon nanotube
- Carrier dynamics
- Phonon dynamics
- Transient spectroscopy
- Ultrafast electron diffraction