JSAP1 (also termed JIP3) is a scaffold protein that interacts with specific components of the JNK signaling pathway. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase (ASK) 1 is a MAP kinase kinase kinase that activates the JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades in response to environmental stresses such as reactive oxygen species. Here we show that JSAP1 bound ASK1 and enhanced ASK1- and H 2O 2-induced JNK activity. ASK1 phosphorylated JSAP1 in vitro and in vivo, and the phosphorylation facilitated interactions of JSAP1 with SEK1/MKK4, MKK7 and JNK3. Furthermore, ASK1-dependent phosphorylation was required for JSAP1 to recruit and thereby activate JNK in response to H 2O 2. We thus conclude that JSAP1 functions not only as a simple scaffold, but it dynamically participates in signal transduction by forming a phosphorylation-dependent signaling complex in the ASK1-JNK signaling module.