Photorefractive effect in annealed proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides

Takumi Fujiwara, Xiaofan Cao, Ramakant Srivastava, Ramu V. Ramaswamy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Citations (Scopus)


We compare the photorefractive effect in proton-exchanged (PE) and annealed proton-exchanged (APE) LiNbO3 optical waveguides at the irradiation wavelength of 488 nm. We measure the intensity dependence of the saturated index change, the build-up time constant, and the photorefractive sensitivity in PE and APE waveguides. In APE waveguides the photorefractive sensitivity is about three times that of PE waveguides up to an irradiation intensity of 100 W/cm2. The contribution of the dark conductivity to the photorefractive effect in PE and APE waveguides is found to be dominant in the intensity range used in our experiments.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)743-745
Number of pages3
JournalApplied Physics Letters
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1992


Dive into the research topics of 'Photorefractive effect in annealed proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this