Leptospirosis becomes severe, with a fatality rate of >10%, and manifests as severe lung injury accompanied by acute kidney injury. Using urine and blood samples of 112 patients with leptospirosis, osteopontin (OPN), galectin-9 (Gal-9) and other kidney-related biomarkers were measured to understand the pathological and diagnostic roles of OPN and Gal-9 in leptospirosis. Plasma levels of full-length (FL)-OPN (pFL-OPN) (p < 0.0001), pFL-Gal-9(p < 0.0001) and thrombin-cleaved OPN (p < 0.01) were significantly higher in patients with leptospirosis than in healthy controls (n = 30), as were levels of several indicators of renal toxicity: serum cystatin C (p < 0.0001), urine N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase (NAG)/creatinine (p < 0.05), and urine clusterin/creatinine (p < 0.05). pFL-Gal-9 levels were negatively correlated with pFL-OPN levels (r = -0.24, p < 0.05). pFL-OPN levels were positively correlated with serum cystatin C (r = 0.41, p < 0.0001), urine NAG/creatinine (r = 0.35, p < 0.001), urine clusterin/creatinine (r = 0.33, p < 0.01), and urine cystatin C/creatinine (r = 0.33, p < 0.05) levels. In a group of patients with abnormally high creatinine levels, significantly higher levels of serum cystatin C (p < 0.0001) and pFL-OPN (p < 0.001) were observed. Our results demonstrate that pFL-OPN reflect kidney injury among patients with leptospirosis.
- Cystatin C