PPNW: personalized pairwise novelty loss weighting for novel recommendation

Kachun Lo, Tsukasa Ishigaki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Most works of recommender systems focus on providing users with highly accurate item predictions based on the assumption that accurate suggestions can best satisfy users. However, accuracy-focused models also create great system bias towards popular items and, as a result, unpopular items rarely get recommended and will stay as “cold items” forever. Both users and item providers will suffer in such scenario. To promote item novelty, which plays a crucial role in system robustness and diversity, previous studies focus mainly on re-ranking a top-N list generated by an accuracy-focused base model. The re-ranking algorithm is thus completely independent of the base model. Eventually, these frameworks are essentially limited by the base model and the separated 2 stages cause greater complication and inefficiency in providing novel suggestions. In this work, we propose a personalized pairwise novelty weighting framework for BPR loss function, which covers the limitations of BPR and effectively improves novelty with negligible decrease in accuracy. Base model will be guided by the novelty-aware loss weights to learn user preference and to generate novel top-N list in only 1 stage. Comprehensive experiments on 3 public datasets show that our approach effectively promotes novelty with almost no decrease in accuracy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1117-1148
Number of pages32
JournalKnowledge and Information Systems
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2021 May


  • Collaborative filtering
  • Loss weighting
  • Novel recommendation
  • Personalized recommendation
  • Recommender systems

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Information Systems
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Artificial Intelligence


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