Superficial temporal artery (STA)–middle cerebral artery (MCA) anastomosis is a standard treatment for adult moyamoya disease (MMD) patients. Cerebral hyperperfusion (CHP) syndrome is one of the most serious complications of this procedure that can result in deleterious outcomes, but predicting CHP before revascularization surgery remains challenging. Furthermore, the hematological/serological factors associated with CHP syndrome are unknown. To investigate the correlation between pre-operative hematological/serological factors and the development of CHP syndrome after STA-MCA anastomosis with encephalo-duro-myo-synangiosis (EDMS) for MMD., a pre-operative peripheral blood test was performed within 5 days before surgery. Local cerebral blood flow (CBF) at the site of anastomosis was quantified by N-isopropyl-p-[123I] iodoamphetamine single-photon emission computed tomography 1 and 7 days after surgery, and the pre-operative CBF value at the corresponding area was measured. We defined CHP syndrome as a local CBF increase over 150% compared with the pre-operative value, which was responsible for delayed intracranial hemorrhage, transient focal neurological deterioration, and/or seizure. Then, we retrospectively investigated the correlation between peripheral blood test results and the development of CHP syndrome. CHP syndrome 1 day after STA-MCA anastomosis with EDMS was observed in nine patients (9/114 hemispheres; 7.9%). Multivariate analysis with multiple imputation revealed that higher hematocrit value and lower total protein level were significantly associated with the development of CHP syndrome (p value: 0.028 and 0.043, respectively). Higher pre-operative hematocrit levels and lower pre-operative total protein levels are novel risk factors for CHP syndrome after direct revascularization surgery in adult MMD patients.
- Cerebral blood flow
- Cerebral hyperperfusion
- Extracranial-intracranial bypass
- Moyamoya disease
- Total protein