Objective: The aim of this study is to describe and clarify the factors affecting the prognosis of Japanese patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) undergoing tracheostomy invasive ventilation (TIV) therapy. Methods: We conducted a prospective longitudinal observational case-control study using a multicentre registry. ALS patients who started TIV therapy after registration (TIV group) and those who did not receive TIV (non-TIV group) were included. We compared the survival time between the TIV group and the non-TIV group using a propensity score matching analysis and evaluated the prognostic factors in the TIV group. Results: From February 2006 to January 2018, 190 patients in the TIV group and 1093 patients in the non-TIV group were included in this study. The mean age of disease onset and usage rate of gastrostomy and non-invasive ventilation therapy differed between the groups. In the propensity score matching analysis using known prognostic factors, the median overall survival time of the TIV group was significantly greater than that of the non-TIV group (11.33 years vs 4.61 years; p<0.001). Analysis using the Cox proportional hazard model suggested that older age of onset and respiratory onset was an independent factor for poor prognosis after starting TIV therapy. Conclusion: We showed that there was a significant difference of approximately 7 years in life expectancy between Japanese ALS patients who did and did not receive TIV therapy.