Aim: The number of patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) showing acute presentation has increased. This study aimed to assess their prognosis. Methods: A survey of AIH patients by sending questionnaires was performed, and 96 patients showing acute presentation were investigated. Results: The median age was 58 years and 78 patients (81%) were female. Eighty-four patients (88%) were positive for antinuclear antibody and/or anti-smooth muscle antibody. The median serum immunoglobulin G level was 2252mg/dL. Twenty-five patients (26%) showed histological acute hepatitis. As initial treatment, 88 patients (92%) were treated with corticosteroid, and 28 of them received pulse steroid treatment. Overall, 11 patients (11%) reached fatal outcomes (nine death and two liver transplantation). Patients with histological acute hepatitis showed higher serum bilirubin levels, lower prothrombin activities and higher prothrombin time-international normalized ratios (PT-INR) and reached fatal outcomes more frequently. With a multivariate logistic regression analysis, prothrombin activity and PT-INR at presentation was associated with fatal outcomes. Nine of 13 patients (69%) showing prothrombin activity of 40% or lower at presentation and nine of 19 patients (47%) showing PT-INR of 1.5 or higher reached fatal outcomes. Furthermore, of 13 patients showing prothrombin activity of 40% or lower and/or PT-INR of 1.5 or higher at presentation who were treated with pulse steroid treatment, four (31%) died from infectious disease. Conclusion: Prothrombin activity and PT-INR are prognostic factors for AIH showing acute presentation. Physicians should pay attention to the development of infectious disease when pulse steroid treatment is performed.
- Acute presentation
- Autoimmune hepatitis
- Prothrombin activity
- Prothrombin time-international normalized ratio
- Pulse steroid treatment