Aims The prognostic impact of chronic total coronary occlusion (CTO) on implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) recipients remains unclear. Methods and results Eighty-four consecutive patients with ischaemic heart disease who received ICD therapy for primary or secondary prevention were analysed. We investigated all-cause mortality and major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) including cardiac death, appropriate device therapy, hospitalization for heart failure, and ventricular assist device implantation. Of the study patients (mean age 70 ± 8 years; 86% men), 34 (40%) had CTO. There were no significant differences in age, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), New York Heart Association functional class III or IV status, and proportion who underwent secondary prevention between patients with CTO (CTO group) and without CTO (non-CTO group). During a median follow-up of 3.8 years (interquartile range 2.7-5.4 years), the CTO group tended to have a higher MACE rate (log-rank P = 0.054) than the non-CTO group. Within the CTO group, there was no difference in the MACE rate between patients with and without viable myocardium. In patients with ICD for secondary prevention (n = 47), 16 patients (34%) with CTO had a higher MACE rate than patients without CTO (log-rank P < 0.01). Cox proportional hazards regression analysis showed that the presence of CTO, but not LVEF, was associated with a higher MACE rate. Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of CTO was a predictor of MACE (P < 0.05). Conclusion In patients with ischaemic heart disease receiving ICD implantation, the presence of CTO has an adverse impact on long-term prognosis, especially as secondary prevention.
- Chronic total occlusion
- Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator
- Ischemic heart disease
- Myocardial viability