Projections of future beach loss along the mediterranean coastline of Egypt due to sea-level rise

Mahmoud Sharaan, Keiko Udo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Beach loss and shoreline retreat caused by sea level rise (SLR) is considered one of the most worldwide significant issues. The Mediterranean coastline of Egypt (approximately 1066 km) is likely to face beach erosion, particularly in the low-lying and sandy coastal areas in the future as a direct response to SLR. Consequently, the projection of future shoreline recession and corresponding beach loss due to SLR using the Bruun rule were investigated to assess the proper impacts of SLR on the shoreline recession and beach loss. In addition, the uncertainties ratios associated with SLR scenarios and sediment sizes were assessed. Furthermore, this study investigated the influence of local land subsidence in combination with SLR scenarios on the shoreline recession and associated beach loss along the Nile Delta coastline. The ensemble-mean regional SLR data included representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios and 21 models of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). The projected shoreline retreats and associated average beach loss in the future 2081–2100 were ranged from 12.6 m and 11.3 km2 to 41.9 m and 19.2 km2 for the ensemble-mean SLR RCP2.6 and RCP8.5, respectively. The uncertainty caused by the sediment size of 0.15 to 0.35 mm ranged from 17% to 30% for RCP2.6 and RCP8.5, respectively. The projected annual shoreline retreats ranged from 0.36 to 0.65 m/yr for the ensemble-mean SLR in combination with local land subsidence for RCP2.6 and 0.48 to 0.85 m/yr for RCP8.5, respectively. Highly vulnerable areas to shoreline recession for SLR and local land subsidence were detected from EL-Manzala lake to Port Said coastlines, Abo Qir bay, from Rosetta to Damietta promontories, and Alexandria coastline. Thus, shoreline retreat and associated beach loss due to SLR is an urgent issue that should be addressed through the integrated coastal zone management strategies of Egypt.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101972
JournalApplied Ocean Research
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Jan


  • Beach loss
  • Bruun rule
  • Land subsidence
  • Sea level rise
  • Shoreline retreat


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