To examine the properties of N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) and iodized oil (lipiodol [Lip]) in vitro and in vivo for safe and effective embolization. Viscosity, polymerization time, and diffusing capacity were evaluated according to the NBCA/Lip ratio in vitro. Additionally, the effect of the NBCA/Lip ratio on arterial embolization was evaluated in vivo; various ratios of NBCA/Lip were injected into the renal arteries of adult beagles, after which the embolization effect following transcatheter arterial embolization was quantitatively investigated histopathologically and using computed tomography (CT) volumetry. The viscosity of NBCA/Lip increased, polymerization time was prolonged, and diffusing capacity increased as the NBCA density decreased. As the NBCA density decreased, embolic material was recognized in smaller diameter arteries, and embolization of a larger vascular bed was accomplished. The NBCA/Lip mixture with a low density of NBCA was located more peripherally from the catheter tip, and embolization of more peripheral and smaller diameter arteries was achieved. The relationships of properties of NBCA/Lip in vitro and embolization effects in vivo of various ratios of NBCA/Lip were quantitatively examined and compared. The results of this study are useful for safe and effective embolization.