The present study performed proteomic analysis of the midbrain and striatum of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-treated neonatal ratsa model of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Proteomic analysis revealed that a 58-kDa glucose-regulated protein (Grp58) was temporarily phosphorylated and its level was elevated by 6-OHDA. Furthermore, 6-OHDA increased the expression level of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), a mediator of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, in the midbrain and striatum. In vitro experiments using PC12 cells revealed that 6-OHDA or hydrogen peroxide could induce the elevation of Grp58 and CHOP. 6-OHDA could induce the elevation of Grp58 and CHOP in the presence of catalase, a hydrogen peroxide-removing enzyme, suggesting that the elevation of Grp58 and CHOP are induced by both hydrogen peroxide and p-quinone generated by 6-OHDA. Collectively, these findings suggest that ER stress involving the alteration of Grp58 and CHOP play a significant role in the induction of insults by 6-OHDA in vivo.
- Hydrogen peroxide