Background and aims: Vitamin B6 is involved in a large spectrum of physiological processes and comprises of the vitamers pyridoxamine (PM), pyridoxal (PL), pyridoxine (PN), and their phosphorylated derivatives including the biological active pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP). While PN toxicity is known to complicate several treatments, PM has shown promise in relation to the treatment of metabolic and age-related diseases by blocking oxidative degradation and scavenging toxic dicarbonyl compounds and reactive oxygen species. We aimed to assess the metabolization of oral PM supplements in a single and three daily dose. Materials and methods: We optimized and validated a method for the quantification of the B6 vitamers in plasma and urine using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Five healthy volunteers were recruited to study PM metabolization after a single oral dose of 200 mg PM or a three daily dose of 67 mg PM. A third protocol was implemented as control for dietary intake. Venous blood samples, 24 h urine and fasted second void urine samples were collected. Results: After a single oral dose of 200 mg PM, plasma PM increased in the first 3 h to a maximum of 2324 ± 266 nmol/L. While plasma PM levels returned to baseline after ~10 h of PM intake, PLP increased to a maximum of 2787 ± 329 nmol/L and reached a plateau. We found a small increase of PN to a maximum of 13.5 ± 2.1 nmol/L; it was nearly undetectable after ~12 h. With a three daily dose of 67 mg PM we observed an increase and decline of plasma PM, PL, and PN concentrations after each PM intake. PLP showed a similar increase as in the single dose protocol and accumulated over time. Conclusion: In this study we showed high plasma levels of PM after oral PM supplementation. We found steadily increasing levels of the biologically active PLP, with minimal formation of PN. The B6 vitamer PM is an interesting supplement as an inhibitor of harmful processes in metabolic diseases and for the treatment of vitamin B6 deficiency. Clinical trial registry: The study was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of Maastricht University (NL) and was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT02954588.
- Vitamin B6