We conducted a multicenter prospective randomized study to compare a fixed-scheduled induction therapy with a response-oriented individualized induction therapy for elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Newly diagnosed AML patients, aged between 65 and 80, were randomly assigned to receive fixed or individualized induction. Both groups received daunorubicin (DNR) 40 mg/m 2 for 3 days and behenoyl cytarabine (BHAC) 200 mg/m 2 for 8 days. In the individualized group, bone marrow biopsy was done on days 8 and 10, and according to the cellularity and blast ratio, the patients received additional DNR and BHAC for two to four more days. All patients achieving complete remission (CR) were randomized a second time to determine whether they would receive ubenimex. CR was obtained in 60.1 % of the fixed group and 63.6 % of the individualized group. Predicted 4-year relapse-free survival (RFS) was 9 % for the fixed group and 18 % for the individualized group. There were no statistically significant differences in CR and RFS between the fixed and individualized groups. In the ubenimex group, prolonged RFS was observed. Notably, gender was a prognostic factor in this study, as 102 female patients had a significantly higher CR rate (72.5 vs. 54.3 %, p = 0.0048) and better OS (24 vs. 14 % at 4 years, p = 0.018), compared with 140 male patients.
- Acute myeloid leukemia
- Behenoyl cytarabine (enocitabine
- Response-oriented individualized induction therapy