Rapid reduction of titanium dioxide nano-particles by reduction with a calcium reductant

Tatsuya Kikuchi, Masumi Yoshida, Shiki Matsuura, Shungo Natsui, Etsuji Tsuji, Hiroki Habazaki, Ryosuke O. Suzuki

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22 Citations (Scopus)


Micro-, submicron-, and nano-scale titanium dioxide particles were reduced by reduction with a metallic calcium reductant in calcium chloride molten salt at 1173 K, and the reduction mechanism of the oxides by the calcium reductant was explored. These oxide particles, metallic calcium as a reducing agent, and calcium chloride as a molten salt were placed in a titanium crucible and heated under an argon atmosphere. Titanium dioxide was reduced to metallic titanium through a calcium titanate and lower titanium oxide, and the materials were sintered together to form a micro-porous titanium structure in molten salt at high temperature. The reduction rate of titanium dioxide was observed to increase with decreasing particle size; accordingly, the residual oxygen content in the reduced titanium decreases. The obtained micro-porous titanium appeared dark gray in color because of its low surface reflection. Micro-porous metallic titanium with a low oxygen content (0.42 wt%) and a large surface area (1.794 m2 g-1) can be successfully obtained by reduction under optimal conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1041-1048
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Sept


  • Chemical synthesis
  • Electronic materials
  • Metals
  • Microporous materials
  • Microstructure


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