Rate/state Coulomb stress transfer model for the CSEP Japan seismicity forecast

Shinji Toda, Bogdan Enescu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Citations (Scopus)


Numerous studies retrospectively found that seismicity rate jumps (drops) by coseismic Coulomb stress increase (decrease). The Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Prediction (CSEP) instead provides us an opportunity for prospective testing of the Coulomb hypothesis. Here we adapt our stress transfer model incorporating rate and state dependent friction law to the CSEP Japan seismicity forecast. We demonstrate how to compute the forecast rates of large shocks in 2009 using the large earthquakes during the past 120 years. The time dependent impact of the coseismic stress perturbations explains qualitatively well the occurrence of the recent moderate size shocks. Such ability is partly similar to that of statistical earthquake clustering models. However, our model differs from them as follows: the off-fault aftershock zones can be simulated using finite fault sources; the regional areal patterns of triggered seismicity are modified by the dominant mechanisms of the potential sources; the imparted stresses due to large earthquakes produce stress shadows that lead to a reduction of the forecasted number of earthquakes. Although the model relies on several unknown parameters, it is the first physics based model submitted to the CSEP Japan test center and has the potential to be tuned for short-term earthquake forecasts.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)171-185
Number of pages15
JournalEarth, Planets and Space
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2011


  • CSEP japan
  • Coulomb stress change
  • Rate and state friction
  • Seismicity forecast


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