Recent Progress in Titanium Extraction and Recycling

Osamu Takeda, Takanari Ouchi, Toru H. Okabe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

44 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents a brief review of the history of titanium smelting and the current trends in related research and development. Presently, both electrolytic and metallothermic reduction processes utilizing various feed materials such as titanium oxide are widely studied. However, many challenges remain to be addressed before realizing the practical application of smelting processes utilizing oxide feed. To make titanium a “common metal”, a new reduction process that is high speed, energy-efficient, low cost, and of low environmental impact is required. The current status of titanium recycling is likewise outlined, and the development of the recycling process is discussed. Low-grade titanium scraps heavily contaminated by oxygen and iron are currently used for producing additive alloys (ferro-titanium) in the steel industry. In the near future, if the demand for titanium metal increases dramatically, there could be an oversupply of low-grade titanium scraps in the market. Therefore, the development of anti-contamination and efficient removal processes for oxygen and iron is essential for the efficient utilization of titanium. The development of these technologies is vital for expanding the titanium industry through innovation in both titanium smelting and recycling technologies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1315-1328
Number of pages14
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Aug 1


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