Recycling of Ti

Osamu Takeda, Toru H. Okabe

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


At present, the major resource for recycling titanium (Ti) is in-house Ti scraps generated during smelting and fabrication processes instead of post-consumer Ti products. Although the nominal recycling ratio of post-consumer Ti products is low, the actual recycling rate including cascade recycling in the smelting and fabrication industry is high. The major impurities in Ti scrap are oxygen (O) and iron (Fe). High-grade Ti scrap with low O and Fe concentrations is used for remelting Ti and its alloys. However, low-grade Ti scrap with high O and Fe concentrations is used as ferro-titanium in the steel industry (cascade recycling). However, if the demand for Ti drastically increases, the amount of generated low-grade Ti scrap will exceed the demand for ferro-titanium. Considering this situation, technologies for the anti-contamination or efficient O and Fe removal must be developed for the efficient utilization of Ti. In this chapter, the current status of Ti scrap generation and its recycling flow are reviewed. New developments in Ti recycling technology are also discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationExtractive Metallurgy of Titanium
Subtitle of host publicationConventional and Recent Advances in Extraction and Production of Titanium Metal
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages25
ISBN (Electronic)9780128172001
ISBN (Print)9780128172018
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Nov 8


  • Contamination
  • Recycling
  • Refining
  • Scrap
  • Titanium


Dive into the research topics of 'Recycling of Ti'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this