Reducing the breast cancer risk and radiation dose of radiography for scoliosis in children: a phantom study

Manami Nemoto, Koichi Chida

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Full-spinal radiographs (FRs) are often the first choice of imaging modality in the investigation of scoliosis. However, FRs are strongly related to breast cancer occurrence due to multiple large-field radiographic examinations taken during childhood and adolescence, which may increase the risk for breast cancer in adulthood among women with scoliosis. The purpose of this study was to consider various technical parameters to reduce the patient radiation dose of FRs for scoliosis. To evaluate breast surface doses (BSDs) in FRs, radio photoluminescence dosimeters were placed in contact with a child phantom. Using the PC-based Monte Carlo (PMC) program for calculating patient doses in medical X-ray examinations, the breast organ dose (BOD) and the effective dose were calculated by performing Monte Carlo simulations using mathematical phantom models. The BSDs in the posteroanterior (PA) view were 0.15–0.34-fold those in the anteroposterior (AP) view. The effective dose in the PA view was 0.4–0.61-fold that in the AP view. BSD measurements were almost equivalent to the BODs obtained using PMC at all exposure settings. During FRs, the PA view without an anti-scatter grid significantly reduced the breast dose compared to the AP view with an anti-scatter grid.

Original languageEnglish
Article number753
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Oct


  • Breast cancer
  • Cancer risk
  • Disaster medicine
  • Effective dose
  • Full-spinal radiograph
  • Pediatric X-ray examination
  • Radiation dose
  • Radiation safety
  • Scoliosis


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