Background: Japan has a high prevalence of adult T-cell leukaemia (ATL), especially in the Kyushu/Okinawa region. Regional differences in prevalence might cause regional differences in physicians' experiences and the efficiency of care-resource use. This study investigated regional differences in the performance of bone marrow transplantation (BMT), outcome and care-resource use in patients with ATL in Japan. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study using a Japanese hospital administrative database in 2010, with a diagnostic-procedure combination/per diem payment system. We examined the association between BMT performance, resource use, outcomes and region. Results: We analysed data for 712 subjects of whom 60.5% were Kyushu/Okinawa residents. Significantly more patients with ATL underwent BMT in Kanto (p = 0.018) and Kansai (p < 0.001) regions compared with the Kyushu/Okinawa regions. The lengths of hospital stay were longer in Kanto (p = 0.002) and Kansai (p = 0.006) regions than in the Kyushu/Okinawa region. Total health-care costs were higher in Kanto (p = 0.001) and Kansai (p = 0.005) regions than the Kyushu/Okinawa region. The risks of in hospital mortality were not significantly different between regions. Conclusions: There were significant regional differences in BMT performance and resource use within Japan. ATL prevalence was not related to the performance of BMTs, resource use or outcomes. Factors related to regional socioeconomics might affect the performance of BMTs and care resource use within Japan.
- Adult T-cell leukaemia
- Bone marrow transplantation
- Hospital administrative database
- Regional differences